InferCabulary- Vocabulary Research References

InferCabulary is based on the latest vocabulary research. These researchers are literacy, cognitive psychology and speech language experts who have helped to support and inspire our research.


Alt, M., Plante, E., & Creusere, M. (2004). Semantic features in fast-mapping: Performance of preschoolers with specific language impairment versus preschoolers with normal language. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47(2), 407-420. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2004/033)

American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. (2012). American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Houghton Mifflin.

Archer, A., & Hughes, C. (2011). Explicit Instruction: Effective and Efficient Teaching. NY: Guilford Publications.

August, D., Carlo, M., Dressler, C. and Snow, C. (2005), The Critical Role of Vocabulary Development for English Language Learners. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 20: 50–57. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5826.2005.00120.x

Baumann, J. F., Kame’enui, E. J., & Ash, G. (2003). Research on vocabulary instruction: Voltaire redux. In J. Flood, D. Lapp, J. R. Squire &, J. Jensen, (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language Arts, 2, 752-785. Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., & Kucan, L. (2013). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction (2nd ed.). Guilford Press.

Beck, I. L., Perfetti, C. A., & McKeown, M. G. (1982). Effects of long-term vocabulary instruction on lexical access and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 506-521.

Biemiller, A. (2009). Words worth teaching: closing the vocabulary gap. Columbus, OH: SRA/McGraw Hill.

Biemiller, A., & Slonim, N. (2001). Estimating root word vocabulary growth in normative and advantaged populations: Evidence for a common sequence of vocabulary acquisition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(3), 498-520.

Bowyer-Crane, C., & Snowling, M. J. (2005). Assessing chil- dren’s inference generation: What do tests of reading comprehension measure? British Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 189–201.

Butler, S., Urrutia, K., Buenger, A., Gonzalez, N., Hunt, M., & Eisenhart, C. (2010). A review of the current research on vocabulary instruction (No. ED-08-CO-0123). Portsmouth, NH: National Reading Technical Assistance Center, RMC Research.

Carey, S. (2010). Beyond fast mapping. Language Learning and Development, 6(3), 184–205.

Cattell, R. B. (1987). Intelligence: Its structure, growth and action. North-Holland.

Catts H, Adlof S, Ellis-Weismer S. Language deficits in poor comprehenders: A case for the simple view of reading. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 2006; 49:278–293. 

Cain K. Text comprehension and its relation to coherence and cohesion in children’s fictional narratives. British Journal of Developmental Psychology. 2003; 21(3):335–351.

Cain K, Oakhill JV. Inference ability and its relation to comprehension failure in young children. Reading and Writing. 1999; 11:489–503.

Cain K, Oakhill JV. Profiles of children with specific reading comprehension difficulties. British Journal of Educational Psychology. 2006; 76(4):683–696. [PubMed: 17094880]

Cain, K.; Oakhill, JV. Reading comprehension development from 8-14 years: The contribution of component skills and processes. In: Wagner, RK.; Schatschneider, C.; Phythian-Sence, C., editors. Beyond Decoding: The behavioral and biological foundations of reading comprehension. The Guildford Press; NY: 2009. p. 143-175.

Cain K, Oakhill JV. Matthew effects in young readers: Reading comprehension and reading experience aid vocabulary development. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 2011; 44(5):431–443. [PubMed: 21772058]

Cain K, Oakhill JV, Barnes MA, Bryant PE. Comprehension skill, inference-making ability, and the relation to knowledge. Memory & Cognition. 2001; 29(6):850–859. [PubMed: 11716058]

Cain K, Oakhill JV, Lemmon K. Individual differences in the inference of word meanings from context: The influence of reading comprehension, vocabulary knowledge, and memory capacity. Journal of Educational Psychology. 2004; 96(4):671–681. 

Catts, H. W., & Kamhi, A. G. (2017). Prologue: Reading comprehension is not a single ability. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 48(2), 73–76.

Christ, T. (2011). Moving Past “Right” or “Wrong” Toward A Continuum Of Young Children’s Semantic Knowledge. Journal of Literacy Research, 43(2), pp. 130-158.

Coyne, M.D., McCoach, D.B., Loftus, S., Zipoli, R., & Kapp, S. (2009). Direct vocabulary instruction in kindergarten: Teaching for breadth vs. depth. Elementary School Journal, 110, 1-18.

Duff, Dawna. (2019).  Has Vocabulary Intervention Had an Effect? A Valid, Reliable, and (Fairly) Quick Outcome Measure for Semantic Knowledge. Language, Speech, & Hearing Services in Schools, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 506 – 517.

Elleman, A. M., Oslund, E. L., Griffin, N. M., & Myers, K. E. (2019). A review of middle school vocabulary interventions: Five research-based recommendations for practice. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 50(4), 477–492.

Eyer, J. A., Leonard, L. B., Bedore, L. M., McGregor, K. K.,Anderson, B., & Viescas, R. (2002). Fast mapping of verbs by children with specific language impairment. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 16(1), 59–77.

Ford-Connors, E., & Paratore, J. R. (2015). Vocabulary instruction in fifth grade and beyond: Sources of word learning and productive contexts for development. Review of Educational Research, 85(1), 50–91.

Graves, M. F., Schneider, S., & Ringstaff, C. (2018). Empowering students with word-learning strategies: Teach a child to fish. The Reading Teacher, 71(5), 533–543.

Haastrup, K. (1991). Lexical inferencing procedures, or, talking about words: Receptive procedures in foreign language learning with special reference to English. Gunter Narr.

Hu, M., & Nation, I. S. P. (2000). Unknown vocabulary density and reading comprehension. Reading in a Foreign Language, 13(1), 403–430.

Fallon, K.A., Lawrence, B., & Seifert, D. (2021). Semantic reasoning: Building vocabulary with critical thinking skills. Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups.

Kamil, M. L., Borman, G. D., Dole, J., Kral, C. C., Salinger, T., & Torgesen, J. (2008). Improving adolescent literacy: Effective classroom and intervention practices (NCEE #2008–4027). Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.

Kennedy, M. J., Romig, J. E., Van Uitert, V. J., & Rodgers, W. J. (2019). Evaluating the impact of a vocabulary app plus explicit instruction on vocabulary knowledge of fifth grade students with and without disabilities. Journal of Special Education Technology.

Lawrence, B., & Seifert, D. (2016). Test of semantic reasoning. Academic Therapy Publications. 

Lawrence, B., & Seifert, D. (2019). When using language doesn’t work: The founding of an edtech literacy company. In D. L. Edyburn (Ed.), App development for individuals with disabilities: Insights for developers and entrepreneurs (pp. 97–134). Knowledge by Design.

Loftus, S., Coyne, M.D., McCoach, D.B., Zipoli, R., Kapp, S.,  & Pullen, P. (2010). Effects of a supplemental vocabulary intervention on the word knowledge of kindergarten students at-risk for language and literacy difficulties. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 25, 110-122.

Lowry, L. (1993). The Giver. Bantam Doubleday Dell. Mancilla-Martinez, J., & Lesaux, N. K. (2010). Predictors of reading comprehension for struggling readers: The case of Spanish-speaking language minority learners. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(3), 701–711.

Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D. J., & Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works. Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement (1st ed.). Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

McGregor, K. K., & Duff, D. (2015). Promoting diverse and deep vocabulary development. In T. Ukrainetz (Ed.), School speech-language pathology: Principles and procedures for oral and written language. Pro-Ed.

Mcgregor, K. K., Oleson, J., Bahnsen, A., & Duff, D. (2013). Children with developmental language impairment have vocabulary deficits characterized by limited breadth and depth. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders,48(3), 307-319. doi:10.1111/1460-6984.12008

McGregor, K. K., Sheng, L., & Ball, T. (2007). Complexities of expressive word learning over time. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 38(4), 353–364.

Nagy, W. E, & Scott, J. A. (2000). Vocabulary processes. In M. L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.). Handbook of reading research (3rd ed., pp. 269-284). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. NICHD Clearinghouse.

National Reading Technical Assistance Center. “A Review of the Current Research on Vocabulary Instruction” 2010. Accessed January 10, 2016.

Nash, H., & Snowling, M. (2006). Teaching new words to children with poor existing vocabulary knowledge: A controlled evaluation of the definition and context methods. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 41(3), 335-354.

Ness, M. (2011). “Explicit Reading Comprehension Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Teacher Use of Reading Comprehension Strategies.” Taylor & Francis. 

Ouellette, G. P. (2006). What’s meaning got to do with it: The role of vocabulary in word meaning and word comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(3), 554-566. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.98.3.554

Ouellette, G. P., & Beers, A. (2010). A not-so-simple view of reading: How oral vocabulary and visual-word recognition complicate the story. Reading and Writing, 23, 189-208. doi:10.1007/s11145-008-9159-1

Oakhill, J., Cain, K., & Elbro, C. (2014). Understanding and teaching reading comprehension: A handbook. Routledge.

Oakhill, J., & Cain, K. (2012). The precursors of reading ability in young readers: Evidence from a four-year longitudinal study. Scientific Studies of Reading, 16, 91–121.

Paivio, A. (2008). Looking at reading comprehension through the lens of neuroscience. In C. C. Block & S. R. Parris (Eds.), Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices (pp. 101–113). The Guilford Press.

Perfetti, C. (2007). Reading ability: Lexical quality to comprehension. Scientific Studies of Reading, 11(4), 357–383.

Perfetti, C. (2017). Lexical quality revisited. In E. Segers & P. van den Broek (Eds.), Developmental perspectives in written language and literacy (pp. 51–68). John Benjamins.

Quinn, J. M., Wagner, R. K., Petscher, Y., & Lopez, D. (2015). Developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension: A latent change score modeling study. Child Development, 86(1), 159–175.

Sadoski, M. (2008). Dual coding theory: Reading comprehension and beyond. In C. C. Block & S. R. Parris (Eds.), Comprehension instruction: Research-based best practices (pp. 38–49). The Guilford Press.

Schneider, W. J., & McGrew, K. S. (2012). The Cattell-Horn-Carroll model of intelligence. In D. P. Flanagan & P. L. Harrison (Eds.), Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues (3rd ed., pp. 99–144). Guilford Press.

Silverman, R. D., & Hartranft, A. M. (2015). Developing vocabulary and oral language in young children. New York, NY: Guilford. Retrieved from

Snow, CE.; Burns, MS.; Griffin, P. Preventing reading failure in young children. National Academy Press; Washington, DC: 1998.

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Tannenbaum, K. R., Torgesen, J. K., & Wagner, R. K. (2006). Relationships between word knowledge and reading comprehension in third-grade children. Scientific Studies of Reading, 10(4), 381–398.

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Ukrainetz, T. A. (2015b). School-age language intervention: Evidence-based practices. Pro-Ed.

Ukrainetz, T. A. (2017). Commentary on “reading comprehension is not a single ability”: Implications for child language intervention. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 48(2), 92–97.

U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress. (2019). The Nation’s Report Card: Vocabulary. Retrieved from

Wagner, R. K., & Meros, D. (2010). Vocabulary and reading comprehension: Direct, indirect, and reciprocal influences. Focus on Exceptional Children, 1G1-245473138.

Wright, T. S., & Cervetti, G. N. (2016). A systematic review of the research on vocabulary instruction that impacts text comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 52(2), 203–226.

Zipoli, R., Coyne, M. D., & McCoach, D. B. (2011). Enhancing vocabulary intervention for kindergarten students: Strategic integration of semantically-related and embedded word review. Remedial and Special Education, 32 (2), 131–143.